Genes, Race, IQ, and disease.
One refutation of Lynn, and three papers with emphasis added.
Refuting Lynn, refuting the Alt Wrong/Alt Yellow. Amren weeps.
BACKGROUND:Although cell lines are an essential resource for studying cancer biology, many are of unknown ancestral origin, and their use may not be optimal for evaluating the biology of all patient populations.METHODS:An admixture analysis was performed using genome-wide chip data from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) Cell Lines Project to calculate genetic ancestry estimates for 1018 cancer cell lines. After stratifying the analyses by tissue and histology types, linear models were used to evaluate the influence of ancestry on gene expression and somatic mutation frequency.RESULTS:For the 701 cell lines with unreported ancestry, 215 were of East Asian origin, 30 were of African or African American origin, and 453 were of European origin. Notable imbalances were observed in ancestral representation across tissue type, with the majority of analyzed tissue types having few cell lines of African American ancestral origin, and with Hispanic and South Asian ancestry being almost entirely absent across all cell lines. In evaluating gene expression across these cell lines, expression levels of the genes neurobeachin line 1 (NBEAL1), solute carrier family 6 member 19 (SLC6A19), HEAT repeat containing 6 (HEATR6), and epithelial cell transforming 2 like (ECT2L) were associated with ancestry. Significant differences were also observed in the proportions of somatic mutation types across cell lines with varying ancestral proportions.CONCLUSIONS:By estimating genetic ancestry for 1018 cancer cell lines, the authors have produced a resource that cancer researchers can use to ensure that their cell lines are ancestrally representative of the populations they intend to affect. Furthermore, the novel ancestry-specific signal identified underscores the importance of ancestral awareness when studying cancer.
Racial genetic differences mean that results obtained with cancer cell lines from one race may very well be NOT applicable to other races. There are indeed racial differences in gene sequences and gene expression, with clinically significant implications for patients.
BACKGROUND:We examined racial differences in the expression of eight genes and their associations with risk of recurrence among 478 white and 495 black women who participated in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study Phase 3.METHODS:Breast tumor samples were analyzed for PAM50 subtype and for eight genes previously found to be differentially expressed by race and associated with breast cancer survival: ACOX2, MUC1, FAM177A1, GSTT2, PSPH, PSPHL, SQLE, and TYMS. The expression of these genes according to race was assessed using linear regression and each gene was evaluated in association with recurrence using Cox regression.RESULTS:Compared to white women, black women had lower expression of MUC1, a suspected good prognosis gene, and higher expression of GSTT2, PSPHL, SQLE, and TYMS, suspected poor prognosis genes, after adjustment for age and PAM50 subtype. High expression (greater than median versus less than or equal to median) of FAM177A1 and PSPH was associated with a 63% increase (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-2.46) and 76% increase (HR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15-2.68), respectively, in risk of recurrence after adjustment for age, race, PAM50 subtype, and ROR-PT score. Log2-transformed SQLE expression was associated with a 20% increase (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03-1.41) in recurrence risk after adjustment. A continuous multi-gene score comprised of eight genes was also associated with increased risk of recurrence among all women (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) and among white (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03-1.27) and black (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02-1.20) women.CONCLUSIONS:Racial differences in gene expression may contribute to the survival disparity observed between black and white women diagnosed with breast cancer.
Health disparity differences in outcome for breast cancer in White vs. Black women have a genetic basis.
Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) define the boundaries of the reproductive lifespan in women. Their timing is associated with various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with either AM or ANM in populations of largely European or Asian descent women. The extent to which these associations generalize to diverse populations remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to replicate previously reported AM and ANM findings and to identify novel AM and ANM variants using the Metabochip (n = 161,098 SNPs) in 4,159 and 1,860 African American women, respectively, in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study. We replicated or generalized one previously identified variant for AM, rs1361108/CENPW, and two variants for ANM, rs897798/BRSK1 and rs769450/APOE, to our African American cohort. Overall, generalization of the majority of previously-identified variants for AM and ANM, including LIN28B and MCM8, was not observed in this African American sample. We identified three novel loci associated with ANM that reached significance after multiple testing correction (LDLR rs189596789, p = 5×10⁻⁰⁸; KCNQ1 rs79972789, p = 1.9×10⁻⁰⁷; COL4A3BP rs181686584, p = 2.9×10⁻⁰⁷). Our most significant AM association was upstream of RSF1, a gene implicated in ovarian and breast cancers (rs11604207, p = 1.6×10⁻⁰⁶). While most associations were identified in either AM or ANM, we did identify genes suggestively associated with both: PHACTR1 and ARHGAP42. The lack of generalization coupled with the potentially novel associations identified here emphasize the need for additional genetic discovery efforts for AM and ANM in diverse populations.
There seems to be genetic differences underlying reproductive lifespan in women of different races. I hypothesize that Negro females would tend to possess variants promoting earlier reproduction. Blacks and Hispanics have earlier puberty than Whites.