Young aristocrats from Spain, Portugal,England, France, Germany and Italyenthusiastically joined the Knights of St. John…The Knights of St. John were recognized as the toughest soldiers in Christendom.
The Defenders On the Christian side, there were less than 700 Knights of St. John, 400 Spanish soldiers, 800 Italian soldiers, 200 Greek and Sicilian soldiers, approximately 3,000 soldiers drawn from the Maltese population, and along with other civilians who were given weapons, a total force of less than 9,000 men Relief The morale of the defenders of Malta was lifted when 4 galleys from Sicily managed to evade the Turkish blockade and land a small relief force of 42 knights and 700 militia.
Still, Jewish culture flourished in many places. The early modern period for Jews under Ottoman rule was a period of remarkable political and cultural success. Given that the Ottoman Empire was engaged in military conflict with Christians, Sephardic Jews in particular were regarded potential allies, diplomats, and spies.
The Ottoman Empire was home to many large and vibrant Jewish communities.
…when the Christian king and queen Ferdinand and Isabella finally finished reconquering Spain from its Muslim rulers, one of the first things they did was to force all of the Jews in Spain to leave. Some of these Jews moved to the Netherlands, but most of them sailed to North Africa, to the Hafsids there, or across the Mediterranean to the Ottoman Empire, which welcomed the Jews enthusiastically.
During the Ottoman Empire, relations between the two regions continued, with the name for “Ottoman” in Chinese (“Rumi”) appearing several times in historical documents and Ottoman tributary delegations traveling to China, especially during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).